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返回玉器 宋 汝窑青釉盘

宋(960——1279)
高2.8厘米 口径17.2厘米 底径9.2厘米
    汝窑为五大名窑之首,窑址在河南省宝丰清凉寺,据考证烧造时间为宋哲宗元祐元年(1086年)到宋徽宗崇宁五年(1106年)二十年间,因烧造时间短,数量少,在南宋时就有“近尤难得”之说。汝窑瓷器如此珍贵,在博物馆界和收藏界无不以收藏到汝瓷为至高荣誉。汝瓷现今传世不足百件,天津博物馆却珍藏着两件汝窑盘,故十分珍贵。盘高2.8厘米,口径17.2厘米,底径9.2厘米。口外撇,曲壁,圈足外卷裹釉。通体天青色釉,釉汁肥厚莹润,釉面上布满了细碎的冰裂纹,如冰似玉,清雅高洁。盘底满釉,一只盘底有三个细小的支钉痕,而另外一只盘底有五个支钉痕。
  汝瓷胎质细腻,像燃烧过的香灰的颜色,俗称“香灰胎”。汝瓷独特之处在于其釉色呈“雨过天晴云破处”的美妙色彩,并且釉面莹润如玉,有玉石般的质感。南宋人周辉的《清波杂志》云:“汝窑宫中禁烧,内有玛瑙为釉”。由于汝瓷贡器以玛瑙为釉,形成特殊色泽,将器物迎着阳光看,隐约可见肉红色。器表开片密布细小,形成鱼鳞状,更加独特别致。釉内气泡周边之玛瑙结晶体,形成星光闪现,寥若晨星,具有宝光内润而又高雅素净的风采。汝瓷的烧造方法也很独特,采用满釉支烧的方法,烧成的支钉痕细小而规整,因而有“芝麻挣钉釉满足”之说。长期以来,考古界与收藏界的专家权威们都对汝窑瓷器的主要特征用一句话概括,即“青如天,面如玉,蟹爪纹,晨星稀,芝麻挣钉釉满足”。汝窑瓷这些胎釉特征既有文献记载,又为出土物所证实,是鉴定汝瓷的要领。
 Blue-grey-green glazed dish, Ru ware
Song dynasty(960-1279)
Height 2.8cm, Diameter of rim 17.2cm, Diameter of base 9.2cm

This dish is made from exceptionally fine “incense grey clay”; this name is derived from the resemblance between the fired clay’s colour and that of the ash left after firing. The dish is entirely covered in a full and lustrous blue-grey-green glaze. Amid the tiny bubbles in the glaze there are a small number of relatively large bubbles reminiscent of the stars at dawn. The glaze is covered with tiny ice crackles. The piece’s resemblance to ice and jade lends it a pure and lofty elegance. As the dish was supported during firing the glaze covers the entire based of the dish, aside from three minuscule prong marks. Fewer than 100 pieces of Ru ware survive today, making them exceptionally valuable.

 

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