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返回玉器 明 朱砂荷鱼澄泥砚

明(1368—1644)
长24厘米 宽15.4厘米 高2.2厘米
    澄泥砚,与端砚、歙砚、洮砚并称为我国四大名砚,以其质地细腻、色泽多变、发墨如油、不损笔毫而颇受历代文人雅士的推崇。用澄泥制砚,起于唐代,是以经过滤洗的细泥加入添加剂烧制而成,使用起来不亚于石。明代是澄泥砚发展的成熟阶段,在制作、雕刻方面均有极大的飞跃。由于烧造技术的进步以及添加剂品类的创新,着色技术已到达炉火纯青的程度,工匠们得以烧制出五彩缤纷的澄泥砚。朱砂澄泥即初见于此时,泥赤如朱,鲜艳夺目。《砚小史》有云:“澄泥之最上者为鳝鱼黄,其次为绿豆砂,又次为玫瑰紫……然不若朱砂澄泥之尤妙。”可见,朱砂澄泥堪称澄泥砚中的稀世之珍。
  天津博物馆“耀世奇珍”馆藏精品展中陈列有一方“明代荷鱼朱砂澄泥砚”,在烧造工艺和雕琢构思上皆有独到之处。此砚作鱼形砚身,呈朱红色,泥质细腻,色泽鲜艳。砚背衬以荷叶,荷叶及鱼周于烧制前均着黑色,黑红相映,荷鱼交辉,浓艳与沉着相得益彰。可谓造型生动活泼,雕刻精细传神,线条流畅自然,色彩鲜丽华美,技法高超,巧夺天工,是极为稀见的古代文房艺术精品。
  此方砚台不仅闪耀着古人灿烂的艺术光辉,而且所蕴含的文化信息也颇值得回味。砚作鱼形,与“余”谐音,荷鱼相配,寓意连年有余,吉祥富贵。砚背上方隶书:“给谏公赏”;中间另刻楷书小字铭:“离尘垢 伴文人 腹中书满 同上龙门。”落款“宋开蕤”;下方刻有铭文两行:“初颐园大司马赠 宋开莱藏”。“谏公”乃宋澍,与初彭龄(颐园)同为清代乾嘉时期官员、学者,亦为同乡好友。宋开蕤,为宋澍长子,工诗文,书画、篆刻皆精妙。宋开莱,为宋澍三子。可见,此砚乃初彭龄赠予宋氏家族,且颇为宋氏父子珍赏。尤其是宋开蕤所作砚铭,寄托出文人满腹经纶,期待携手出仕的美好愿景。荷叶之衬托,象征出淤泥而不染,亦如君子超凡脱俗、洁身自好的高贵品质,使得砚的文人气息浓郁。今日赏之,当时文人以砚会友,佳砚相赠,结伴共赏,挥毫泼墨的情形仿佛跃然于方寸墨海之间。
  此外,砚台盒盖之上亦刻铭文曰:“澄泥荷鱼研 初颐园家旧物,河间吴棠湖购得收藏”。可知该砚后被清末书画家、收藏家吴浔源先生收藏。1954年,明代荷鱼朱砂澄泥砚由天津著名文物收藏家徐世章先生的亲属捐献给天津市艺术博物馆。由此可考,此砚经多位名家收藏鉴赏,流传有绪,实为难得。

Fish on lotus-shaped inkstone
Ming dynasty(1368-1644)
Cinnabar chengni ceramic
Height 15.4cm, Length 24cm, Depth 2.2cm

This cinnabar red inkstone is a high-quality work made of extremely fine high-grade chengni clay with a bright, lustrous colour. The front face of the inkstone is sculpted in the shape of a fish, while the reverse side is formed into a black lotus leaf, creating a powerful contrast between red and black. The piece has fluent and naturalistic lines, is of the highest quality material, makes splendid use of colour, and is exquisitely sculpted. It is a rare example of such high-quality inkstones. The reverse of the inkstone features two clerical script inscriptions, reading “Offer remonstration and share praise” and “Gifted to the collection of Song Kailai by the Great Minister of War of the Chuyi Garden”. An inscription of semi-cursive script in small characters reads “leaving dirt and disgrace, companion scholars. A belly full of books, together we pass over the dragon gate.”Passing over the dragon gate describes a carp becoming a dragon, used as an allegory for official promotion.
 


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